A chain with a T-bar fitting. These were originally attached to a pocket (or fob) watch, frequently with a decorative medallion or other ornament attached to one end. Due to the decrease in waistcoat wearing, ladies recycled their husband's or father's chains and wore these as a fashionable necklace.
An alloy is a combination of two or more metals. Common alloys used in jewellery and giftware in the UK are: Gold 9ct (%37.5 gold with varying amounts of other metals such as silver depending on colour and other characteristics wanted) Gold 18ct (%75 gold), 22ct (%91.6 and very soft); Platinum (%95 platinum); Silver Sterling (%92.5 silver); and Pewter (%92 tin with lead, antimony and a bit of silver or copper) .
Pearls Pearls from the Akoya saltwater oyster which is the mainstay of the Japanese pearl industry. Now also formed by China and other countries. Annealing As you work metal it becomes brittle. Heating and cooling it restores its malleability and ductility, enabling you work it again.
An assay is a test of the purity of an alloy. Official assay offices in London, Birmingham, Sheffield and Edinburgh determine whether a piece qualifies for an appropriate hallmark .
This is a gemstone cut in a narrow rectangular shape.
Baroque is a term that refers to irregularly shaped stones or pearls.
Irregular shaped pearls of all shapes and sizes, neither round nor symmetrical. The surface is usually uneven. Most are inexpensive, but some have come to be the centrepiece for very expensive pieces of jewellery . A setting used for small stones, they are held onto the surface by small beads of metal raised from the ring itself. The setting can look quite traditional or antique.
A setting used for small stones, they are held onto the surface by small beads of metal raised from the ring itself. The setting can look quite traditional or antique.
Also known as rub-over settings the metal completely surrounds the outer edge of the stone offering a very secure setting and a great deal of protection. This is a particularly good setting for some coloured gemstones as it will prolong their longevity. Sections of the bezel can also be removed (a semi-bevel) to expose some edges of the stone. However, a well-cut diamond does not need light to enter from the sides so this kind of setting will not reduce the sparkle and fire of a diamond.
A pearl necklace of more than three concentric strands.
An alloy is a combination of two or more metals. Common alloys used in jewellery and giftware in the UK are: Gold 9ct (%37.5 gold with varying amounts of other metals such as silver depending on colour and other characteristics wanted) Gold 18ct (%75 gold), 22ct (%91.6 and very soft); Platinum (%95 platinum); Silver Sterling (%92.5 silver); and Pewter (%92 tin with lead, antimony and a bit of silver or copper) . Bezel Setting Also known as rub-over settings the metal completely surrounds the outer edge of the stone offering a very secure setting and a great deal of protection. This is a particularly good setting for some coloured gemstones as it will prolong their longevity. Sections of the bezel can also be removed (a semi-bevel) to expose some edges of the stone. However, a well-cut diamond does not need light to enter from the sides so this kind of setting will not reduce the sparkle and fire of a diamond.
Cultured freshwater pearls grown in Lake Biwa in Japan.
The oyster is famous for the Tahitian pearl which is found in the South Pacific in and around Tahiti and French Polynesia.
A natural coloured dark pearl grown in the black-lipped oyster. The colour is black, light black/silvery or a dark grey, although other very dark colours such as the rarer peacock green are also referred to as black pearls. Natural colour black pearls are rare and most of the cheaper black pearls, especially freshwater, are dyed.
Little marks, bumps, scars or irregularities on a pearl's surface that give a pearl strand its personality, although heavy marking will lower its value. Brilliance Brilliance is what makes a diamond sparkle. When white light shines on the diamond, a luminescent reflection is seen. A correctly cut diamond increases the reflection of the light and has a maximal brilliance.
Brilliance is what makes a diamond sparkle. When white light shines on the diamond, a luminescent reflection is seen. A correctly cut diamond increases the reflection of the light and has a maximal brilliance.
A round diamond with 57 facets that are arranged in a certain way, has an optimal brilliance and light reflection.
A faceted tear-drop shaped stone. If it is un-faceted it is a drop.
Also known as a scroll. It is the fitting that attaches to the post of an earring to hold it in your ear.
A stone cut with a domed top and a flat bottom. These are usually round or oval.
A style of carving in which the design motif is left and the surrounding surface is cut away, leaving the design in relief. Cameos are still made today in Italy.
Computer-aided design is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimisation of a design.
A carat is often confused as the size of a diamond, when in fact it is actually the measure of a diamond’s weight. Put simply, the more a diamond weighs, the rarer the diamond is. The word carat is derived from carob. In ancient India gems were weighed with carob beans that all weighed exactly the same.
From the French words chat (cat) and oeil (eye) and describes the optical effect whereby a strip of light is reflected within the stone and glints back and forth, resembling the feline eye. It is most prominent in chrysoberyl , but is also found in a few other gemstones including tourmaline
A diamond is given a grade to describe the level of inclusions or imperfections. The less imperfections, the better the clarity. All diamonds have inclusions. It’s what makes them unique like a fingerprint. And as we promise only the best for our customers, all our platinum and18 carat gold diamond rings are graded Si1 or above, so any natural markings will never be seen by the naked eye.
Setting Very popular and can achieve a different look depending on the number of claws. Four claw settings have a modern and contemporary look, whilst 8 claw settings can look more traditional. For larger stones 8 claw settings offer more protection and a more secure setting, however the stone can appear crowded. The shape of the stone can also determine the number of claws required, for example a teardrop stone may require 3 claws. The tips of the claws can be shaped if desired. This type of setting can let a lot of light through the stone.
A diamond must be as colourless as possible. The colour grade describes the colour tones in a stone. D is perfectly colourless, which is rare and expensive. The colour scale goes from D to Z and indicates yellow and brown tones. It takes a trained eye to distinguish between shades that are close together, but an untrained eye see the difference between shades that are several tones apart with a little practice. Pink, blue, red, and green diamonds are also found, but they are very rare and expensive. These fancy coloured diamonds don’t follow the normal colour/price scale and are priced separately.
Settings Popular for ring shoulders and also for eternity and wedding rings, this setting allows for a continuous method of setting multiple diamonds within a channel, creating a uniform flow. The stones must be calibrated to ensure they are exactly the same size. The stones are securely held in place within the channel and look particularly neat as there is no metal between the stones.
Refers to the very small facet on the bottom of the pavilion, parallel to the table. It is also spelled collet and culette. We buy with our eyes, so when our customers admire a diamond for the first time we know it’s the colour that catches theirs. Diamonds range in colour from D to Z. At Beaverbrooks, we only hand select exceptional ‘rare white’ diamonds for our platinum and 18 carat gold ranges (G grade)
Cut refers to the reflective qualities of the diamond. Behind every quality diamond is a skilled cutter. We take great pride in scrutinising the cut of each diamond we hand select, as only those most precisely cut perform with true fire, brilliance and scintillation. A diamond with a very good cut has very strict requirements for depth and table percentages. These proportions give the stone a maximal brilliance and icy fire.
A diamond with a fair cut has less than perfect proportions to make the most of the weight. This cut sacrifices the brilliance of the stone.
A poorly cut diamond has imperfect proportions that make it look lustreless. Diamonds with a poor cut are not recommended for fine jewellery. Crown The top half of a gemstone. This usually consists of a larger flat facet (called the Table) and smaller facets on the shoulders.
This can be a type of diamond cut incorporating both a round and square shape (therefore resembling a cushion). It also refers to a style of signet ring stamping, which is also cushion-like, being square with rounded corners.
Good cut Very Good Cut
A diamond with a good cut has acceptable but imperfect proportions. Its brilliance and fire is good, which makes it a good stone for jewellery. Decoration Etched This is a very faintly carved surface decoration, which can also be created using acids or lasers.
The depth of a diamond is measured from the culet at the bottom, to the table facet at the top.
Depth % Dispersion
The depth percentage is the height of the diamond (measured from the culet to the table) divided by the width. The depth is crucial for optimal brilliance and fire. When the depth percentage is too low, the diamond will lose its sparkle because the light is leaking out. Describes the way a diamond breaks up a ray of white light into colour. A choker length formed from multi-strands of gems or pearls.
A stamping technique in which a pattern (for example a scroll pattern similar to an engraved effect) is pressed onto a plain area of metal to leave the pattern in relief, i.e. standing proud above the plain background rather than cut in as in the case of engraving.
Enamel is produced by fusing coloured powdered glass paste to metal (usually silver, copper or gold) to produce a glass-like, decorative surface. The colour of the enamel and its transparency depends on the metal oxides in the glass and the temperature at which the glass melts. In some cases, the enamel may be translucent, showing the textures of any engraving on the metal underneath, which produces guilloche (pronounced ghee-yosh) enamel. Engine Turning Another engraving technique that can be applied to plain metal, and is frequently used on powder compacts, cigarette lighters and larger pieces. Geometric, criss-cross designs are generally favoured.
This is gouging out a design in metal with graver's tools, or embellishing metal or other material with patterns using a drill. This was fashionable in mid-Victorian jewellery. The resulting depressions were often filled with coloured enamel. Engraving is also used for inscriptions. Chasing is where the surface of the metal is moved, but not actually carved out. Electroplating
To coat (a metal object) by electrolytic deposition with chromium, silver, or another metal. Eternity Ring (ET) An eternity ring is a narrow ring with a line of diamonds or other gemstones running all the way round. The unbroken circle symbolising eternity. A husband often gives it to his wife after a number of years of marriage or the birth of a child to show that the commitment made at their wedding is as strong as ever.
Describes the process of removing diamonds from concentrate. Facet Fancies Facets are the flat, polished surfaces on a diamond. Fancies are attractively coloured diamonds. Is a diamond of an attractive colour other than white that is suitable for gem use.
Fineness is the proportion of silver or gold in a metal alloy. Fineness is usually expressed in parts per thousand. For example, the fineness of sterling silver is 925. Fire Refers to the flashing colours seen when a suitably cut diamond is moved, resulting from its dispersion.
Certain diamonds disperse a bluish glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. A diamond should not have strong fluorescence, but faint or moderate fluorescence does not affect the diamonds look. Some customers prefer a faint fluorescence, because it balances the yellow colour of some of the less expensive stones.
Fresh water pearls
Pearls predominantly flesh-nucleated typically in mussels in several countries around the world, notably China, Japan and the USA.
Filigree is gold or silver wire that have been twisted into patterns and soldered into place. Openwork filigree is not soldered onto a sheet of metal and is difficult to make. Imitation filigree is made of stamped metal. Is the correct name for a brilliant-cut diamond with 56 facets plus table and culet.
Is the correct name for a brilliant-cut diamond with 56 facets plus table and culet.
The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewellery arts. Founded in 1931, GIA's mission is to protect all buyers and sellers of gemstones by setting and maintaining the standards used to evaluate gemstone quality. The institute does so through research, gem identification and diamond grading services and a variety of educational programs. Through its world-renowned library and subject experts, GIA acts as a resource of gem and jewellery information for the trade, the public and worldwide media outlets.
The girdle is the widest perimeter of a gemstone.
Though we don't use this technique, it is useful to be aware of it. 14k Gold Fill is not the same as gold plated. There is around 100 times more gold in gold fill than there is on plated wire. Gold filled looks like and usually wears as well as karat gold. Often referred to in the UK as rolled gold, Gold Fill is very hard wearing and unlike gold plating is unlikely to wear off, even with use. Gold-filled pieces must be at least 1/ 20 by weight in gold to be classified as gold-filled.
Is the skilled person who separates polished diamonds into sizes and quality grades by clarity, colour, and accuracy of cut.
A unit sometimes used to measure pearls - a metric or pearl grain is equal to 50 milligrams or ¼ of a carat.
The stone is set into the metal of the ring itself and is flush with the surface. It creates an effect of scattered stones and can also be used with fancy cuts. The stones are well protected as they do not protrude above the surface of the ring.
This is a stamped mark applied to items of jewellery and silverware by the Assay
Offices of Britain as a guarantee of authenticity. The mark consists of four
components: The sponsor (or manufacturer) mark; the standard mark, which
denotes the precious metal content of the item; the Assay Office Mark (Assay
Offices are found in London, Birmingham, Sheffield and Edinburgh) and the date
letter which shows the year in which the article was hallmarked.
Inclusions are internal imperfections in a diamond, such as a spot or irregularity. Irregularities can include a fracture, a smaller diamond inside the bigger one, included liquid etc. In SI3- clarity diamonds (or lower quality) the inclusions can be seen with the naked eye. In higher quality stones the inclusions are only visible under magnification. The fewer the inclusions, the better the clarity grade, the rarer the stone and the higher the price.
This is an optical phenomenon in which the hue on the surface of the stone changes according to the angle from which the surface is viewed. A similar phenomenon may be seen on the surface of soap bubbles and on butterfly wings. The word is derived in part from the Greek word iris, meaning 'rainbow', from the goddess Iris, the personification of the rainbow in Greek mythology.
These are small flat roundish natural pearls formed naturally in the soft cavities left after a pearl has been removed or ejected by the mollusc. They are %100 nacre and have a very good lustre.
Kimberely Process Certificate
The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is the process established in 2009 to prevent "conflict diamonds" from entering the mainstream rough diamond mark by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 56/55 following recommendations in the Fowler Report. The process was set up "to ensure that diamond purchases were not financing violence by rebel movements and their allies seeking to undermine legitimate governments."
A magnifying lens used by jewellers to closely study a gemstone or a hallmark. Gemologists generally use a 10x hand held loupe while jewellers working at the bench often use a 5x eyepiece.
Refers to the quality of a surface in reflected light. The lustre of a diamond is usually described as adamantine lustre.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale that characterises the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material.
The pearly substance secreted by the mantle of certain molluscs to form a pearl.
A metal that was frequently used in fashion jewellery and occasionally as an alloy in gold jewellery. However, some people have an allergy or skin reaction to nickel which results in a rash, particularly if worn as pierced jewellery such as earrings. Recent European legislation (the Nickel Directive) strictly defines the amount of nickel that jewellery can contain, to ensure that it remains far below the level at which such skin reactions could become likely.
Word describes the process of adding the eight main facets to the top and bottom of a stone, which makes its table octagon-shaped.
Stones set close together, showing no metal between them .
Mother-of-pearl Mohs Scale
The pavilion is the top section of a gemstone above its widest point (the girdle).
A point is a means to express the weight of a diamond. One point is 100/1th carat. A diamond that weighs 0.50 carat weighs 50 points.
Rhodium is a transition element, belonging to the platinum group of metals. Rhodium plating is silvery-white in colour and used to both harden the surface it covers, and to create a brighter, more polished look to gold, especially white gold. Gemstones then show to their best effect and the claws holding the gems are firmer and less likely to damage. Rhodium plated jewellery is extremely hard wearing, tarnish resistant and will not be affected by body enzymes, perfumes and hair sprays, helping it to look good for years to come.
Scintillation is the amount of light that is reflected from the diamond as it moves. It is the combination of fire and brilliance.
Are the eight triangular facets around the table of a diamond that make it star-shaped.
Tension settings – this setting relies on the pressure of the metal to hold the stone in place, making it seem as if the stone is floating. Very modern and eye-catching, it will allow the maximum amount of light to pass through the stone. The ring needs to be quite thick to ensure the stone is held firmly and platinum is the best metal to use for its hardness and durability. Diamonds are probably the best.
Is a wedding band that is made to fit underneath your engagement ring